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Human Body and Human Health

Human HealthThe Human Body is the entire structure of a human organism, and consists of a head, neck, torso, two arms and two legs.

By the time the human reaches adulthood, the body consists of close to 50 trillion cells, the basic unit of life. These cells are organised biologically to eventually form the whole body.

Human body size, type and proportion

The average height of an adult male human (in developed countries) is about 1.7–1.8 m (5'7" to 5'11") tall and the adult female about 1.6–1.7 m (5'2" to 5'7") tall.

This size is firstly determined by genes and secondly by diet. Body type and body composition are influenced by postnatal factors such as diet and exercise

Human Internal Systems

Circulatory System (heart, blood, vessels)
Respiratory System (nose, trachea, lungs)

Human Rib Cage Injuries

in Human body

Human Rib Cage Injury

The ribcage supports the upper body, protects internal organs including the heart and lungs, and assists with breathing. Rib injuries include bruises, torn cartilage and bone fractures. Chest trauma may also cause life-threatening injuries such as a punctured lung or a ruptured aorta.

Common causes of rib injury include motor vehicle accidents and falls. Treatment aims to relieve pain while the injury heals.

Structure of the ribs

Mesothelioma Lawyers and Attorneys

Choosing to follow legal recourse and selecting an attorney to represent you in a mesothelioma or asbestos lawsuit are important decisions that should be made carefully. The facts of your situation and the law firm you select have a dramatic impact in the outcome of your case.

The Facts of Your Situation

Mesothelioma Cancer

in Mesothelioma Cancer

Mesothelioma, more precisely malignant mesothelioma is a rare type of cancer. Malignant (cancerous) cells develop in the mesothelium, the protective sac that covers most of the body’s internal organs. Mesothelioma generally starts in the outer membrane of the lungs (pleura), but can also occur in the lining of the abdominal cavity (peritoneum). Uncommonly, the heart or reproductive organs may be affected. Treatment depends on where the cancer is found and whether it has spread.

Malignant Mesothelioma Cancer

in Mesothelioma

What is Mesothelioma?

Mesothelioma, more precisely malignant mesothelioma is a rare type of cancer. Malignant (cancerous) cells develop in the mesothelium, the protective sac that covers most of the body’s internal organs. Mesothelioma generally starts in the outer membrane of the lungs (pleura), but can also occur in the lining of the abdominal cavity (peritoneum). Uncommonly, the heart or reproductive organs may be affected. Treatment depends on where the cancer is found and whether it has spread.
 Mesothelioma (Cancer)
Mesothelioma is almost always caused by exposure to asbestos and can develop decades after the exposure.

How do you get malignant mesothelioma?

Mesothelioma is caused by asbestos exposure.  Asbestos, once regarded as a miracle mineral, was popular due its lightweight but tough characteristics as well as for its heat-resistant properties. This naturally occurring mineral was used in many commercial and consumer products, from construction materials such as cement, roofing shingles and insulation, to consumer and industrial applications such as hair dryers, automobile brake pads and pipe insulation.
Most people with malignant mesothelioma worked on jobs where they breathed asbestos. Others were exposed to asbestos in a household environment, often without knowing it.

What happens inside the body?

 Malignant Mesothelioma (Cancer)  Malignant Mesothelioma (Cancer)

The cancerous cells clump together in a malignant tumour.  As it grows, the tumour pushes against and into other organs and healthy tissue, causing symptoms.  Because the mesothelium is a flat thin lining, the mesothelioma tumour often takes a diffuse shape.
In its advanced stage the cancer metastasizes through the lymph system and spreads to other parts of the body.  It is still referred to as mesothelioma because it started in the mesothelium. 

How it spreads?

Malignant (cancerous) cells develop in the mesothelium. This protective sac has different names, depending on its location in the body. Those most commonly affected by mesothelioma are:

  • Visceral pleura – the membrane that surrounds the lungs
  • Parietal pleura – the membrane that lines the chest wall
  • Peritoneum – the membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal and pelvic cavities.

Mesothelioma most often starts in the pleura. Normally, the two pleura touch and slide across each other while we breathe, lubricated by a slick of fluid. In cases of pleural mesothelioma, the pleura make more fluid than necessary, which presses on the lung (pleural effusion). Mesothelioma usually develops in only one lung. The tumour tends to grow across the lung until the entire organ is encased.

In about 10 per cent of mesothelioma cases, asbestos fibres that have been swallowed can move through the stomach wall and cause cancer cells to develop in the peritoneum (peritoneal mesothelioma).

Sometimes cancer cells migrate to lymph nodes and other areas of the body (such as the unaffected lung) via the lymphatic system. Uncommonly, the heart or reproductive organs may be affected.

Signs and symptoms of mesothelioma

 Malignant Mesothelioma (Cancer)

Symptoms or signs of mesothelioma may not appear until 20 to 50 years (or more) after exposure to asbestos. Shortness of breath, cough, and pain in the chest due to an accumulation of fluid in the pleural space (pleural effusion) are often symptoms of pleural mesothelioma.

Symptoms of peritoneal mesothelioma include weight loss and cachexia, abdominal swelling and pain due to ascites (a build-up of fluid in the abdominal cavity). Other symptoms of Peritoneal Mesothelioma may include bowel obstruction, blood clotting abnormalities, anaemia, and fever. If the cancer has spread beyond the mesothelium to other parts of the body, symptoms may include pain, trouble swallowing, or swelling of the neck or face.

These symptoms may be caused by mesothelioma or by other, less serious conditions.

Mesothelioma that affects the pleura can cause these signs and symptoms:

  • Chest wall pain
  • Pleural effusion, or fluid surrounding the lung
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fatigue or anaemia
  • Wheezing, hoarseness, or cough
  • Blood in the sputum (fluid) coughed up (haemoptysis)


In severe cases, the person may have many tumour masses. The individual may develop a pneumothorax, or collapse of the lung. The disease may metastasize, or spread, to other parts of the body.

Tumours that affect the abdominal cavity often do not cause symptoms until they are at a late stage. Symptoms include:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Ascites, or an abnormal build-up of fluid in the abdomen
  • A mass in the abdomen
  • Problems with bowel function
  • Weight loss


In severe cases of the disease, the following signs and symptoms may be present:

  • Blood clots in the veins, which may cause thrombophlebitis
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation, a disorder causing severe bleeding in many body organs
  • Jaundice, or yellowing of the eyes and skin
  • Low blood sugar level
  • Pleural effusion
  • Pulmonary emboli, or blood clots in the arteries of the lungs

HIV - Human Immunodeficiency Virus

in Articles

What is HIV?

HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus.  A virus can only survive by living in the cells of another organism. HIV is a type of virus called a retrovirus: It incorporates itself into the genetic material of cells called 'CD4 white blood cells', which are part of  the immune system.  This process is called 'reverse transcription', and it enables HIV to replicate.  This leads to destruction of the CD4 cells and damages the immune system.

What is AIDS?

AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.  A syndrome is a set of signs and symptoms that occur together, as a result of a specific cause.  The syndrome of AIDS is caused by HIV.  However a person infected with HIV may not necessarily progress to having AIDS.

HIV causes AIDS by damaging the immune system and making the body vulnerable to 'opportunistic infections'.  These are called ‘opportunistic’ because the weakened immune system gives them the ‘opportunity’ to take hold. These infections can cause death in people were severely weakened immune system.

AIDS was first diagnosed in 1981. Since then HIV and AIDS have spread rapidly and cases have been reported in more than 150 countries.  At the beginning of 2004 it was estimated that nearly 42,000,000 people were living with HIV and AIDS.

In Australia at the beginning of 2004, more than 20,000 people have been diagnosed with HIV infection. Over 8000 of these have been diagnosed with AIDS, and nearly 6000 people have died from AIDS related illnesses.

Different Stages if HIV/ AIDS

HIV infects cells in the immune system and the central nervous system. The main cell HIV infects is called a T helper lymphocyte. The T helper cell is a crucial cell in the immune system. It co-ordinates all other immune cells so any damage or loss of the T helper cell seriously affects the immune system.

HIV infects the T Helper cell because it has the protein CD4 on its surface. HIV needs to use CD4 to enter cells it infects. This is why the T helper cell is referred to as a CD4 lymphocyte. Once inside a T helper cell, HIV takes over the cell and the virus then replicates. In this process (which takes around a couple of days) the infected cell dies. New virus then seeks out new T helper cells to infect.

However, battling against this the immune system is rapidly killing HIV and HIV-infected cells, and replacing the T helper cells that have been lost.
HIV progression can generally be broken down into four distinct stages:

  • Primary infection
  • Clinically asymptomatic stage
  • Symptomatic HIV infection
  • Progression from HIV to AIDS.

Breast Cancer

in Articles

Breast cancer is cancer originating from breast tissue, most commonly from the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk. Cancers originating from ducts are known as ductal carcinomas; those originating from lobules are known as lobular carcinomas.
Breast CancerPrognosis and survival rate varies greatly depending on cancer type and staging. Computerized models are available to predict survival.  With best treatment and dependent on staging, 10-year disease-free survival varies from 98% to 10%. Treatment includes surgery, drugs (hormonal therapy and chemotherapy), and radiation.

Worldwide, breast cancer comprises 10.4% of all cancer incidence among women, making it the most common type of non-skin cancer in women and the fifth most common cause of cancer death.  In 2004, breast cancer caused 519,000 deaths worldwide (7% of cancer deaths; almost 1% of all deaths).  Breast cancer is about 100 times more common in women than in men, although males tend to have poorer outcomes due to delays in diagnosis.

Some breast cancers are sensitive to hormones such as estrogen and/or progesterone which makes it possible to treat them by blocking the effects of this hormones in the target tissues. These have better prognosis and require less aggressive treatment than hormone negative cancers.

Breast cancers without hormone receptors, or which have spread to the lymph nodes in the armpits, or which express certain genetic characteristics, are higher-risk, and are treated more aggressively. One standard regimen, popular in the U.S., is cyclophosphamide plus doxorubicin (Adriamycin), known as CA; these drugs damage DNA in the cancer, but also in fast-growing normal cells where they cause serious side effects.

Sometimes a taxane drug, such as docetaxel, is added, and the regime is then known as CAT; taxane attacks the microtubules in cancer cells. An equivalent treatment, popular in Europe, is cyclophosphamide,  methotrexate, and fluorouracil (CMF).  Monoclonal antibodies, such as trastuzumab  (Herceptin), are used for cancer cells that have the HER2 mutation.

Radiation is usually added to the surgical bed to control cancer cells that were missed by the surgery, which usually extends survival, although radiation exposure to the heart may cause damage and heart failure in the following years.

Causes of Breast Cancer

  • You're over 50 There's nothing strange about this – cancers are caused by cell mutation, and the older you are, the more chance there is of a cell mutation occurring.
  • Someone in your family has had breast cancer This slightly increases your risk. In most cases there's no family association. But scientists have identified certain genes that are responsible for some cases of breast cancer, and these can be transmitted to offspring. In these cases the cancer tends to occur at a younger age.


Breast Cancer

  • The big ONo, not the late Roy Orbison, we're talking about the hormone oestrogen. High levels of oestrogen for long periods of time increase the likelihood of breast cancer. So do early puberty, late menopause, having your first child at a later age (over 35), not breast feeding, and never having children at all. The oral contraceptive pill is thought to increase the risk slightly, as does hormone replacement therapy (HRT) if taken for more than five years.

Ectopic Pregnancy

Pregnancy and ChildbirthAfter the egg is fertilized it goes into uterus of the women that is in the womb where it stays and has proper space for growing. but in case of ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg gets implanted outside the womb that is uterus cavity. This complication condition is rarely viable to save pregnancy; rather they are dangerous for the women herself.

Female Reproductive System

All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the process by which organisms make more organisms like themselves — is one of the things that sets living things apart from nonliving matter. But even though the reproductive system is essential to keeping a species alive, unlike other body systems, it's not essential to keeping an individual alive.

Pregnancy Symptoms

in Pregnancy

Pregnancy Symptoms

Morning Sickness
Nausea can be a sign that a woman is pregnant. Many women say that they've had nausea up to two weeks before an expected monthly cycle and before any other symptom. Eating crackers before getting out of the bed in the morning can help and eating several smaller meals instead of larger ones can help with nausea.

Delay/Difference in Menstruation:

A delayed or missed menstruation is the most common pregnancy symptom leading a woman to test for pregnancy. When you become pregnant, your next period should be missed. Many women can bleed while they are pregnant, but typically the bleeding will be shorter or lighter than a normal period.

Tender Breasts
Tender swollen breasts are another early symptom. While tender breasts are a symptom of an impending cycle, enlarged breasts are not. Sore and swollen breasts with a tingling sensation can be an early indicator of pregnancy.

Extreme fatigue can be another indicator of pregnancy, especially if other symptoms are present. A nap a day can help a pregnant woman maintain normal daily activities.

Frequent Urination

An increased urge to urinate can be an indicator and usually occurs between 6 to 8 weeks out.

Headaches in early pregnancy are a common symptom and begin at about the 6th week. A quick nap can help diminish headaches in pregnancy.

Preeclampsia or toxaemia can begin with headache and can be dangerous to a pregnant woman. If you are pregnant and have this symptom, be sure to call your health care provider immediately.


Lower backaches may be a symptom that occurs early in pregnancy; however, it is common to experience a dull backache throughout an entire pregnancy.

Spotting is a common symptom in pregnancy. Some women report what seems to be a short light period before the onset of other symptoms. This may be implantation bleeding and not a monthly period at all (when the egg implants itself into the lining of the uterus). If you are pregnant and you experience spotting check in with your doctor as spotting is also an indicator of miscarriage in early pregnancy.

Light Headedness
Some pregnant women experience actual fainting and light headedness. Again, this is usually not an issue past the fourth month of pregnancy.


What is Root Canal

A root canal is the space within the root of a tooth. It is part of a naturally occurring space within a tooth that consists of the pulp chamber (within the coronal part of the tooth), the main canal(s), and more intricate anatomical branches that may connect the root canals to each other or to the surface of the root.

The smaller branches, referred to as accessory canals, are most frequently found near the root end (apex) but may be encountered anywhere along the root length. There may be one or two main canals within each root. Some teeth have more variable internal anatomy than others. This space is filled with a highly vascularised, loose connective tissue, the dental pulp.

Use of Exercise

What is the use of doing exercise?

  • Reduce the risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes
  • Improve joint stability
  • Increase and improve range of movement
  • Help maintain flexibility as you age
  • Maintain bone mass
  • Prevent osteoporosis and fractures
  • Improve mood and reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression
  • Enhance self esteem
  • Improve memory in elderly people
  • Lower blood pressure
  • Lower cholesterol
  • Stronger heart & circulatory system
  • Stronger lungs and respiratory system
  • Increased chance of living a longer life

Energy Charts

The charts below provide an estimated number of Kilojoules or Calories expended at various body weights while performing a range of typical weight loss exercises for 30 minutes.

The first chart provides an estimated number of Kilojoules burned per kilo of body weight per 30 minutes and the total Kilojoules burned for a range of body weights (50, 100 and 150kg) per 30 minutes.

Healthy Food Ideas

  • Green and brightly coloured vegetables
  • Dark leafy greens and lettuce
  • Fresh fruits and berries
  • Lean turkey and chicken
  • Nuts, dried fruits and healthy snacks
  • Whole grain breads and pasta
  • Healthy cooking oils like canola and olive oils
  • Grass fed beef and bison
  • Cold water oily ocean fish
  • Low fat milk or soy beverages
  • Nuts, seeds, and legumes

Food Selecting Tips

Vegetables contain 25 calories and 5 grams of carbohydrate.
One serving equals:

1/2 cup

Cooked vegetables (carrots, broccoli, zucchini, cabbage, etc.)

1 cup

Raw vegetables or salad greens

1/2 cup

Vegetable juice

If you’re hungry, eat more fresh or steamed vegetables.

Healthy Tips for women

Women Health Tips

  • Maintain good nutrition by reducing fat in the diet and taking calcium supplements to prevent osteoporosis;
  • Get an annual Pap smear to test for cervical cancer;
  • Get a yearly clinical breast examination in a doctor's office, combined with self-breast examinations each month;
  • If over the age of 50, get an annual mammogram; Protect yourself against sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Move More
  • Cut Fat
  • Reduce Stress
  • Quit Smoking
  • Protect Yourself from Pollution
  • Wear Your Seat Belt
  • Avoid Excessive Drinking
  • Floss Your Teeth
  • Keep a Positive Mental Outlook

Good Health Habits

  • Take Break Fast every morning
  • Drink lots of water
  • Consume a variety of Whole and Natural Foods
  • Eat Organic
  • Get Enough sleep
  • Have a cup of Fruit Juice or Vegetable Juice Daily
  • Exercise  Daily
  • Dress Naturally

Tips to be Active

  • Turn off the TV. Once a week, turn off the TV and do something a little more physical with your family. Play games, take a walk...almost anything will be more active than sitting on the couch.
  • Tips to Relief Stress

    • Take a Hot Bubble Bath
    • Pamper yourself with a Pedicure and a Facial
    • Throw on your Comfiest Pyjamas and Grab a Good Book!
    • Physical Activity
    • Have some Delectable Desserts in the house and Indulge!
    • Light an Aromatherapy Candle and Play some Soft Music
    • Convince your Sweetheart to give you a Massage!
    • Kick Back in Comfortable Clothes and Look through your Photo Albums
    • Start Keeping a Diary or a Journal, just for yourself!
    • Immediate Results for Urgent Needs: Deep Breathing, Stretching, Go Somewhere to Be Alone and Have a Good Cry or
    • Confront the Source
    • Do Something for you
    • Enjoy a cup of Herbal Tea and a few Cookies or a Good
    • Order-Out! Indulge in some Comfort Foods or a cup of Hot Cocoa
    • Try something like Yoga or Meditation to Relieve the Days Stressors
    • Break out of the Routine
    • Spend Time with Loved Ones and Pets!

    About Women's Health and Some Health Issues

    Women's health refers to health issues specific to human female anatomy. These often relate to structures such as female genitalia and breasts or to conditions caused by hormones specific to, or most notable in, females. Women's health issues include menstruation, contraception, maternal health, child birth, menopause and breast cancer. They can also include medical situations in which women face problems not directly related to their biology, for example gender-differentiated access to medical treatment.

    Women's Health
    Women's health is an issue which has been taken up by many feminists, especially where reproductive health is concerned. One example of this is the Cartwright Inquiry in New Zealand, in which research by two feminist journalists revealed that women with cervical abnormalities were not receiving treatment, as part of an experiment. The women were not told of the abnormalities and several later died. In many countries feminists have campaigned for the right to legal and safe abortion, arguing that it is a health rather than a moral issue. In countries where contraception is difficult to access, campaigns for readily available contraception are conducted on the same lines. Conversely, there have also been campaigns against potentially dangerous forms of contraception such as defective IUDs.

    Some health and medical research advocates, particularly the Society for Women's Health Research in the United States, define women's health more broadly than issues specific to human female anatomy to include areas where biological sex differences between women and men exist. Research has demonstrated significant biological differences between the sexes in rates of susceptibility, symptoms and response to treatment in many major areas of health, including heart disease and some cancers.

    Some Common Health Issues Faced by Women

    The website is not a replacement for professional medical opinion, examination, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a doctor or other qualified health professional before starting any new treatment or making any changes to existing treatment. Articles appearing on this website express the views and opinions of the author, and not the administrators, moderators, or editorial staff and hence MagazineHealth and its principals will accept no liabilities or responsibilities for the statements made.